Leakage is one of the common faults caused by mechanical equipment. There are two main reasons for leaks:
1. As a result of mechanical processing, the surface of the mechanical product must have various defects and shape and dimensional deviations. Therefore, a gap is inevitably generated at the joint of the mechanical parts;
2. There is a pressure difference on both sides of the seal, and the working medium will leak through the gap. Reducing or eliminating gaps is the primary way to prevent leaks. The function of the seal is to seal the gap between the joint surfaces, to isolate or cut off the leak passage, increase the resistance in the leak passage, or add a small work element in the passage to cause pressure on the leak and partially offset the pressure difference caused by the leak. Or fully balanced to prevent leaks.
For the sealing of the vacuum system, in addition to the leakage of the above-mentioned sealing medium directly through the sealing surface, the following two leakage forms are also considered:
Leakage: that is, the leakage of the sealed medium through the capillary of the seal material under the action of the pressure difference is called leakage;
Diffusion: the transfer or diffusion of a sealed medium through a sealing gap or a capillary produced by a sealing material under the influence of a concentration difference.
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