The seal can be divided into two categories: a static seal between the stationary joint surfaces and a dynamic seal between the opposite joint surfaces. Static seals are mainly sealed, rubber seals and contact seals. According to the working pressure, the static seal can be divided into a medium-low pressure static seal and a high-pressure static seal. Medium and low pressure static seals are usually made of soft materials, gaskets with wide gaskets, and high-pressure static seals with hard materials and narrow metal strips. Dynamic seals can be divided into two basic types: rotary seals and reciprocating seals. According to whether the seals are in contact with the components that move relative to each other, they can be divided into contact seals and non-contact seals. In general, contact seals have good sealing properties but are limited by friction and wear and are suitable for applications where the sealing surface speed is low. Non-contact seals have poor sealing and are suitable for higher speed applications.
The basic requirements for sealing are good sealing, safety and reliability, long service life, and compact structure, simple system, convenient manufacturing and maintenance, and low cost. Most seals are consumables and should be interchangeable, standardized and serialized.
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